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Site-specific histopathology features have been reported for acral, auricular, flexural, and genital melanocytic nevi, however, to the best of our knowledge, site- and sex-specific histology of dysplastic nevi on the lower leg (between knee and ankle) of women (DN-LW) has not been reported. In this retrospective histopathology study, we compared DN-LW (N = 42) with appropriate control groups of (1) DN of the lower leg of men (N = 20; DN-LM), (2) DN from the back of women (N = 20), (3) common nevi of the lower leg of women (N = 40), and (4) levels 1-2 superficial spreading melanoma of the lower leg of women (N = 20). Compared with dysplastic nevi on the back, DN-LW were smaller in diameter and exhibited a significantly higher score for pagetoid spread (P


Our previous work suggests that healthy human aging is associated with sex-specific differences in leg vascular responses during large muscle mass exercise (2-legged cycling) (Proctor DN, Parker BA. Microcirculation 13: 315-327, 2006). The present study determined whether age x sex interactions in exercising leg hemodynamics persist during small muscle mass exercise that is not limited by cardiac output. Thirty-one young (20-30 yr; 15 men/16 women) and 31 older (60-79 yr; 13 men/18 women) healthy, normally active adults performed graded single-leg knee extensions to maximal exertion. Femoral artery blood velocity and diameter (Doppler ultrasound), heart rate (ECG), and beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure, radial artery tonometry) were measured during each 3-min work rate (4.8 and 8 W/stage for women and men, respectively). The results (means +/- SE) were as follows. Despite reduced resting leg blood flow and vascular conductance, older men exhibited relatively preserved exercising leg hemodynamic responses. Older women, by contrast, exhibited attenuated hyperemic (young: 52 +/- 3 ml.min(-1).W(-1); vs. older: 40 +/- 4 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P = 0.02) and vasodilatory responses (young: 0.56 +/- 0.06 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1).W(-1) vs. older: 0.37 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) W(-1); P


Neuromuscular fatigue, defined as an exercise-induced reduction in the maximal voluntary force produced by a muscle or group of muscles [8] is proposed to increase the risk of ACL injury via altered lower limb joint kinematics associated with poor muscle activation patterns [9]. For example, neuromuscular fatigue has been demonstrated to induce changes in knee flexion, knee abduction and hip internal rotation in female NCAA athletes performing single-leg landings [10]. Similarly undesirable kinematic patterns have been reported for young men with and without ACL reconstruction following a generalised fatigue protocol [11]. Thus, the effect of fatigue on movement patterns in common musculoskeletal screening tests is an important first step to inform injury screening and guide further injury prevention research.


After baseline SLSs were performed and following a 5-minute rest period, each participant performed a test for maximal vertical jump height measured with a Yardstick vertical jump device (Swift Sports, Lismore, Australia). Participants began by standing on the force plate immediately adjacent to the Yardstick with their feet shoulder-width apart and looking straight ahead. The preferred arm was raised without trunk lean or scapula elevation to touch the pegs on the Yardstick, while the hand of the non-preferred arm was held by their side. The height of the reach determined the baseline height for the participant. Participants were instructed to maintain the starting position, before performing a maximal vertical jump in counter-movement fashion to strike the pegs as high as possible on the Yardstick with the hand of the preferred arm. Participants were each given five attempts and the baseline height was subtracted from the highest peg achieved to calculate maximal vertical jump height.


The magnitude of the observed sex differences in SLS kinematics is worthy of discussion. For example, discrepancies of 4.8 in peak hip internal rotation, 6.6 in hip adduction range, and 47 mm mediolateral knee distance between the sexes are likely to be clinically important as previous work demonstrates that changes of similar magnitudes in these parameters predict therapist ratings of SLS performance [15]. This is particularly important if the SLS test is to be incorporated in musculoskeletal screening or provide a basis for rehabilitation. For instance, Willy and Davis [30] observed a significant 5.4 change in hip internal rotation for the single-leg squat following a successful hip strengthening regime in healthy women. The clinical significance of the observed 3.8 difference in peak pelvic rotation, 2.3 difference in hip rotation range, and 23 mm difference in mediolateral knee displacement, however, is less clear and would warrant further investigation with respect to clinical populations, therapist assessment and injury incidence.


We report here two cases of men, aged 46 and 23 years, with refractory chronic venous leg ulcers in association with sex chromosome aberrations: one with a 47,XXY/48,XXXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) and the other with a 47,XYY karyotype (Jacob syndrome). In both patients, the occurrence of leg ulcers was the reason for seeking medical care; their medical history was other-wise unremarkable. Chromosomal analyses were performed due to the unusually young age for development of venous leg ulcers. The pathophysiology behind the occurrence of venous leg ulcers in patients with numerical aberrations of the sex chromosomes is incompletely understood. Involvement of elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in the pathogenesis of venous leg ulcers has been reported in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. Notably, our patient with 47,XXY/48,XXXY presented with androgen deficiency but normal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity.


where ΔEp is the increment in protein-bound phenylalanine enrichment between two sequential biopsies, t is the time between the two sequential biopsies, and EM(1) + EM(2) are the phenylalanine enrichments in the free intracellular pool in the two sequential biopsies. Data are expressed as percent per hour.


Male (open bar) and female (closed bar) fractional synthesis rates (FSR) following an overnight fast (baseline) and the average FSR for the 2 hours following heavy resistance exercise (post-exercise recovery). Each subject performed 10 sets of 10 repetitions of bilateral knee extension in the seated position. Data are expressed as mean SE (N=9 men; N=8 women); *P


Phosphorylation status of Akt at Ser473 during the 1st and 2nd hour of post-exercise recovery. No difference was detected at baseline between men and women (data not shown). Data are expressed as percent change form baseline SE (N=9 men; N=8 women); *P


Phosphorylation status of mTOR at Ser2448 during the 1st and 2nd hour of post-exercise recovery. No difference was detected at baseline between men and women (data not shown). Data are expressed as percent change form baseline SE (N=9 men; N=8 women); *P


Phosphorylation status of S6K1 at Thr389 during the 1st and 2nd hour of post-exercise recovery. No difference was detected at baseline between men and women (data not shown). Data are expressed as percent change form baseline SE (N=6 men; N=6 women); *P


Phosphorylation status of eEF2 at Thr56 during the 1st and 2nd hour of post-exercise recovery. No difference was detected at baseline between men and women (data not shown). Data are expressed as percent change form baseline SE (N=9 men; N=7 women); *P


We wish to thank the nurses and personnel of the General Clinical Research Center of the University of Texas Medical Branch for their help with the conduct of the clinical portion of this study. We would also like to thank Ming-Qian Zheng and Shelly Medina for technical assistance. 041b061a72


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